Summary: There are quite a few concepts and terms involved in discussions of urbanism, transport and cycling (e.g. infrastructure and facilities) that may be unfamiliar. I'll use this post to create a directory of relevant terms with links to definitions or explanatory articles. I've also incorporated some concepts from particular proponents that I agree with and wish to use and popularise (e.g. A view from the cycle path).
Flickr CC by 2.0 - Les Haines
Beater bike (Pub bike)
Developing cycling city (Emerging cycling city)
Segregated cycle facilities
Sharrow (Shared lane marking)
A view from the cycle path
Greatist: The Ultimate Guide to Cycling Lingo